Food Productivity and Life

Human life is sustained with foods, and foods are products of agricultural activities such as farming, fishing, livestock and poultry-raising.

In crop production, the area’s humidity, soil productivity and crop management system play significant roles. General relief is also a factor to consider.

Humidity is the interaction between precipitation and temperature. It influences the growth of plants and animals. The amount of moisture that transpires from the plants and body of animals is dependent upon the relative humidity in the agricultural area.

On the other hand, the productivity of a soil refers to its capability to produce a specified crop or sequence of crops under a specific system of management. Soil productivity rating or index for a given crop is expressed in terms of a standard index of 100. Thus, a productivity rating of 75 for a certain crop means that a soil is about three - fourths as productive relative to national standard or, in terms of production, the soil could produce 45 cavans of palay of lowland rice wherein the national standard is 60 cavans of palay.

Bani is noted for producing the sweetest, the reddest and the juiciest watermelon in the province of Pangasinan and in the country. Before 1986, watermelon (pakwan) production was unheard of in Bani. Trial plantings were began by Farmers School on the Air, a radio program sponsored by the Bureau of Soils assisted by Bayer Philippines. It was a hit and miss affair, using the information given by the radio program. As it was then, the peculiarities of the people were in play, shying away from the uncertain. It was a certain Rey Catabay of Brgy. Banog Norte who initiated the first commercial planting of watermelon in 1989. That was a lucky break for Bani farmers. Commercial planting of watermelon spread like wildfire to the neighboring barangays of Ambabaay and Garrita to Poblacion area and other barangays. Now, a decade after, the farmers of lowland Bani derive no less than P20 Million in net income from watermelon production. To top it all, Bani farmers have mastered the technology and which has earned for Bani the reputation as the home of the sweetest, the juiciest and the reddest watermelon in the country.

Basically as an agricultural town, farming is the main occupation and means of livelihood of the inhabitants of the Municipality of Bani. Other sources of income of the residents are fishing, livestock production and poultry-raising. As per record, farmers totaled 3,977, while those engaged in fishing and aquaculture numbered 996.

Of the 9,954 hectares agricultural area coverage, 5,317.1 hectares is devoted to crop production and aquaculture covers 2,001 hectares to include 396 hectares under Fishpond Leasehold Agreement with the BFAR and about 3,049.6 hectares is classified as pastureland and grassland.

The major crops grown in the town are rice, corn, peanut, mango and watermelon which, respectively reached 16,423 metric tons, 985 metric tons, 69 metric tons, 458.9 metric tons and 1,565.2 metric tons.

Fruit trees are mostly grown in backyards and banana is planted in sloping areas or at the foot of the hills.
Rice farming is carried out in all barangays of Bani while corn and peanut farming is prevalent in Barangays Macabit, Centro Toma, Dacap Norte and Colayo. Barangays Tugui Norte, Ranao, San Jose and Ballag are noted for vegetable production while Barangays Ranao, San Simon, Centro Toma, Quinaoayanan, Ranom Iloco, Tipor and Ballag are known for mango productions. Barangays Banog Norte, Banog Sur, Garrita, Ambabaay and Calabeng are also the leading watermelon producers.

On the other hand, Bani has 501 hectares planted to coconut found sporadically in four coastal barangays with 987 farmers benefiting from this sector. As per estimates there are 37,771 fruit bearing trees with an average production of 30 fruits per tree per year and 12,340 non-bearing fruit trees in Bani.

Most full-time farmers in the municipality are marketing conscious. Farming is being operated in a business-like fashion, gauging beforehand the cost of production and the expected profit margin.

The cost of production of vegetables, peanut, mango, watermelon, legumes and root crops cannot be determined due to fluctuating prices of fertilizers, labor and transportation expenses.
The farmers usually set aside their estimated personal and family consumption together with the required seeds for the next planting season. All excesses are marketed for cash.


Livestock and poultry are also sources of income of the residents of Bani but not on commercial-scale.

Cows and carabaos are the most important raised livestocks chiefly as work animals. Some progressive farmers have more than one of each animal and several poultry heads in their backyards.

As per latest record, there are 2,093 heads of carabao, 3,678 cattle, 4,885 swine, 2,820 goats, and 34,705 chicken and fowl in Bani. For commercial purposes, 260 heads of cattle were raised in 2002.

Due to skyrocketing cost of poultry and animal feeds, the livestock and poultry industry in the locality is not well-developed. With this economic limitation, the 2,833.6 hectares pastureland to date is not being utilized for livestock production.


The sources of inland fishing in the Municipality of Bani are the brackish water in Tambac Bay, rivers and creeks where the landing point of which are the fish port in Barangay Masidem, Banog Norte, Aporao, Caliswang and Poblacion. Species catch are siganid (malaga), mudcrab (rasa), blue crab (dariway), mullet (porong), goby (ipusan), tilapia, shrimp (pasayan), fine shrimp (aramang), spadefish (ritag) and gizzard shad (kabasi).

There are also 58 fishpond (FLA) concessions in Bani producing milkfish (bangus), particularly in Barangays Aporao - 21, Banog Norte - 24, San Miguel - 11 and another 2 in Garrita. Pataga Fish ports in Barangay Aporao, Masidem and Caliswang used to be the fish-landing port.

Offshore fishing (marine), on the other hand, is undertaken in the South China Sea where yellow fin tuna (oriles), blue fin tuna (buslogan), common dolphin fish (dorado), spanish mackerel (tanguigui), roundscad (galonggong), flying fish (bulilit), rudder fish (ilek), large mouth snapper (marabituen), snapper (rogso), octopus (kurita), lobster (udang) and squid (pusit) are abundant.
Aside from the fishing facilities, there are 617 motorized bancas in Bani, 184 in South China Sea and 433 in Tambac Bay of 0.5 to 3 tons and horse power ranging from 8 to 16 in Barangay Aporao - 50, Banog Norte - 76, Garrita - 78, Luac - 5, San Miguel - 51, Tugui Grande - 21, Masidem – 57, Poblacion – 60, Quinaoayanan – 28, San Vicente – 2, San Simon – 14, Ranom Iloco – 14, Centro Toma – 11, Ballag – 1, Dacap Sur – 157, Ambabaay – 3 and Arwas – 10.


Forestry Productivity

One of the forestry policies laid down in Presidential Decree No. 389 otherwise known as the Forestry Reform Code of the Philippines (as amended by Presidential Decree No. 705) is the protection, development and rehabilitation of forestlands so as to ensure their continuity in productive condition.

Thus, the policy making government officials do not intend to curtail forest activities, rather, to promote projects as activities so that forestlands may remain to be productive.

In fact, under Sec. 36 of the said Code, incentives are given to qualified persons to encourage them engage in industrial tree plantation, tree farming, and agro-forestry farms. Projects on reforestation are also being pushed by the government.

The forests found in the municipality are declared as protection forest by the DENR. They cover a land area of 1,050 hectares, and are found in Barangays Colayo, Dacap Sur, Centro Toma and San Simon. These have been reforested through the effort of the local government in coordination with the DENR and are planted with trees like mahogany, “sagat”, and the likes.

Communal Reforestation Project

This project in the town of Bani started on May 19, 1979 under a Tree Farm Lease Agreement to expire on December 31, 2004. The project, covering an area of approximately 250 hectares in Centro Toma, has for its principal objective the restoration of vegetative cover and protection of the municipality’s public forestland. As of this writing, the same is already planted to economically important tree species.

With the successful implementation of the said communal tree farm, the Municipal Government of Bani earned a national distinction. In 1996, it was a recipient of the “Likas Yaman Award” for Best Upland Community - Based project. This award for environmental excellence was received by Mayor Irineo B. Orlino for and in behalf of the Municipality on June 10, 1996 during the DENR Foundation Day and Awarding Ceremonies at Heroes Hall, Malacañang Palace, Manila. The award was handed by former President Fidel V. Ramos and DENR Secretary Victor Ramos.

Existing Industries

Existing industrial establishments in the municipality are generally light, home based and small-scale by classification. As per record of 2002, there are 37 industrial establishments in the municipality, which comprises 7 welding shops, 22 ricemills, 4 handicrafts, 2 furniture making, and 1 auto repair shop and 1 junk shop.

Settlers in San Vicente, San Miguel and Garrita are also engaged in handicraft making. Finished products of woodcraft industry are being exported to other foreign countries. Cottage industry like furniture making, woodcarving, food processing and others in the town are considered as dollar earner. This industry has ten (10) laborers.


Municipality of Bani, Pangasinan, PHILIPPINES 2407
©Copyright 2006-2007. All Rights Reserved.
Best viewed using Flashpeak Slimbrowser. For your comments, inquiries or suggestions
about this site, send e-mail

| credit | site map | disclaimer |