HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

Etymology

Like most municipalities, Bani has a legend of its own which passed from generation to generation by word of mouth. Originally, the name of Bani was San Simon, the site of which was Namagbagan. When the image of the Immaculate Conception, the Patron Saint of the town disappeared from the church altar, the people and Spanish Authorities searched for the same. It was found on top of a tall Bani tree located in the vicinity of the present Roman Catholic Church of Namagbagan. Thereafter, on several occasions, the image would mysteriously disappear only to be found in the same place. With this, the inhabitants were convinced to leave their homes and to settle at the present site. From then on, the town was renamed Bani after the tree where the image of the Patroness was found.

Creation of the Municipality

Historical records reveal that prior to 1762, there were series of revolts in the Ilocos Provinces. The most serious of these uprisings was led by Diego Silang in Vigan who secured a large following and gained control of the region. Inspired by the said rebellion against Spanish domination, the people of Binalatongan (Pangasinan), with Juan de la Cruz Palaris at its helm, followed suit only to be subdued in 1765. To escape persecution through forced labor and excessive tributaries, a large number of Filipinos abandoned their villages and escaped either to the mountains or to regions beyond the control of the Spaniards.

Many of these northern people seeking peace and freedom in “regions beyond control”, took to the sea with small sailboats and sampans. They chanced to come upon the mouth of Bani River and Tambac Bay. Although barred by a shallow sandbar knee-deep at low tide, their daring and bravado pushed them further and farther to a place with a very big tree which fell across on shallow rapids called Don Cayo. These adventurers from the Ilocos Provinces and the Pangasinenses from the strife-torn communities’ bordering the Ilocos region were the first inhabitants of Bani. Their settlements around the banks of Don Cayo became a sitio, the nucleus of the town.

Since at the time Bani was part of the Province of Zambales, the residents who were referred to as “300 souls” by Fr. Mains de Lomboto petitioned its Governor to convert the sitio into a township and evinced their desire to construct a “visita” or chapel in the community. The Governor of Zambales then conducted an ocular inspection of the sitio. Later, on March 18, 1769, the town Bani was founded.

Political Development

Even before Magellan was supposed to have “discovered” the Philippines for the Occidentals in 1521, the Filipinos were in fact already organized into political and social groups called the “barangays”. The barangay was headed by a datu or chieftain, or by a Council of Elders.

There was even a Code of Kalantiyao containing 18 laws pertaining to the proper conduct of the people. The Code was named after Datu Kalantiyao, said to be descendant of the great Datu Sumakwel, one of the earliest datus in the Philippines. (In the Beginning, A Nation: A President, By Mita Q. Sison Duque). These Filipino datus were of Malay origins.

When the Spaniards came to the Philippines in 1521, a native ruler named Kasikis controlled a territory called “Luyag Na Cabaloan” which included all of Pangasinan and a large part of Zambales, La Union and Tarlac. His place was located somewhere within the Municipality of San Carlos (now San Carlos City). Through the intercession of Rajah Lacandula of Tondo, telling Kasikis to honor and receive the Spanish missionaries kindly, all the members of his family and his soldiers were baptized.

The Spanish conquistadores introduced in the Philippines an administrative system whereby the head of a sitio was called “Teniente Absolute” and the town “gobernadorcillo”. In 1843, the title “gobernadorcillo” was changed to “capitan”.

As a sitio in 1762, Bani’s first “teniente absolute” was Don Francisco Baltazar. When Bani earned its township in 1769, the appointed leader was Luis de Jesus. Later, in 1843, Pedro Humilde occupied the top local post.

Year 1899 ushered in the American period in Philippine History. One of the local administrative orders asserted by the Americans was the installation of “ Municipal Presidents” in lieu of “Capitanes”. From 1901-1902, Felomino Orilla was the “Presidente Municipal”. Later successive Municipal Presidents were appointed by the American authorities, the last of whom was Juan Castelo.

In the Province of Pangasinan, civil government under the American Regime was established on February 18, 1901. In 1903, the boundary of the province was changed, the latter acquiring the northern portion of Zambales comprising the towns of Alaminos, Bolinao, Burgos, Mabini, Anda, Bani, Agno and Infanta. (Soil Survey of Pangasinan Province, Philippines, by M.M. Alicante, D.Z. Roselle, R.T. Marfoli and S. Hernandez). The change in the provincial political boundaries was partly due to the distance of these western towns from Iba, the capital of Zambales, and difficulties and scarcity of transportation facilities at the time.

Past Local Chief Executives

For 378 years from 1521 to 1899, local chief executives of the “pueblos” or towns were appointed by the Spanish authorities and from 1901 to 1936 by the Americans. In 1937 to present (2003), the local chief executives were chosen by the town’s people through an election.

Economic Development

Fishing and agriculture are the main sources of livelihood for the majority of Bani residents. Rice, coconuts, fruits and vegetables are the major agricultural products, while “bangus” is the major fish product. Fishponds near the Bani River and its tributaries are expected to contribute a major part in the improvement of the municipality’s economy.

Functional Role of the Municipality

Bani is classified as a third class municipality as of 1996. The municipality is an agricultural town with farming and fishing as the predominant occupation of its residents. The town’s agricultural and aquatic products find their way not only in its public market for the consumption of its inhabitants but likewise to the commercial centers of Alaminos, Dagupan City, Urdaneta and as far as Baguio City. The municipality falls under the Seventh Level Category or Village Center. It is, at present, a Tertiary Urban Center.

Glimpse to the Future

As envisioned in the Provincial Physical Framework Plan (PPFP) of Pangasinan, the Municipality of Bani, while maintaining its being an agricultural and aqua-marine culture town, shall also be an agri-industrial center and a tourist haven in the west. Furthermore, the town is expected to become a first class municipality. As such, the locality shall also have tourist destinations, entertainment outfits and full-range convenience shops with extension services.


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE MUNICIPALITY

Geographic Location

Bani, is geographically located in the western most part of the Island of Luzon and all the Islands of the Philippines except the Province of Palawan. It lies between two big bodies of water namely: Tambac Bay on the east and China Sea on the west. The town is bounded on the north by Bolinao, on the northeast by Tambac Bay, on the east by Alaminos, on the southeast by Mabini, and on the south by Agno. See Map No. 1 (Location Map)

The distances from Bani to its border towns are 26 kilometers from Bolinao, 20 kilometers from Anda, 14 kilometers from Alaminos, and 16 kilometers from Mabini, 22 kilometers from Burgos and 14 kilometers from Agno. As to its distances to Urban Centers, Bani is 62 kilometers from Lingayen, the capital town of the Province of Pangasinan, 76 kilometers from Dagupan City, 252 kilometers from Metro Manila, 133 kilometers from Baguio City, the Summer Capital of the Philippines and 94 kilometers from San Fernando City, which is the Regional Center of Region I.

Land Area Classification

Bani, has a land area of 19,243.6075 hectares, as per records of Land Management Sector (LMS) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). About 553.9776 hectares comprises the urban barangay while the remaining 18,689.6299 hectares comprises the rural barangays. Of the 27 barangays of the municipality, Barangay San Miguel has the largest area while Barangay Tuqui Norte has the smallest

Climate and Weather

The climate of Bani which is mild and pleasant is characterized by two well-pronounced seasons: dry and wet season. Dry season usually starts in the month of November until May with occasional light or very light rainfall. The driest months are January to May. From June to October is the wet season where heavy and continuous rains are experienced brought about by typhoons and tropical storms visiting the country.

Per Climatological Data of the Province of Pangasinan as of 1995, Bani’s temperature ranged from 21.6º to 34.7ºC or a minimum temperature of 23.9º C and 31.9º C maximum. Relative humidity was 87.3. Also, in the same year, there were 144 rainy days with 1,843.8 mm or an average of 12 and 153.7 mm, respectively. Wind direction most of the time from northeast has an average of 178.3 mps with speed of 31mps, and atmospheric pressure of 1,008.5 psi.

Topography and Land Capability

Bani has both rolling and flat terrain. In its western part lies a mountain range which rises as high as 130 meters above sea level while in itse. Soil Type / Suitability and Land Capability

Knowledge of the types of soil enables and gives farmers the exact kind of fertilizers conducive to their lands and the kind of plant variety expected to increase the productive capability of the land.

According to Soil Survey of Pangasinan, the town of Bani has five (5) types of soil which are clay, clay loam, rockland and sandy loam, which is a fissile clay like rock resembling slate, with fragile uneven laminae. Bani soils are suitable to varieties of crop production particularly palay, corn, peanut, vegetables, mango and watermelon.

The following are the types of soil in the municipality of Bani:

Bolinao Sandy Loam

This occupies the level to nearly level areas at the southern portion of Barangay Ranao and relatively small areas also located at Barangays Dacap Sur, San Simon, Centro Toma, Calabeng and Tiep. The soil is moderately deep. Generally, this soil is planted to paddy rice corn, tobacco, peanut, mongo and vegetable crop. The soil is classified as Class A, which is level to nearly level and can be cultivated safely.

Bolinao Clay Loam

This type of soil can be found in barangays Ranao, San Simon, Dacap Sur, Centro Toma, Dacap Norte, Tiep and Macabit. Generally, the areas are diked and are devoted to rice during the wet season. During dry season, however, a considerably wide area remains idle due to the absence of irrigation water. These lands are suited for intensive cultivation capacity if irrigation water is readily available. Common crops in the area can be grown successfully requiring only simple but good farm management.

It belongs to a Class BE, which is nearly level to gently sloping and none to slight erosion.

Bolinao Clay

This soil is clayish and generally shallow derived from the weathering of the shale rocks. The surface soil is very dark gray clay, 15 to 40 centimeters thick, sticky and plastic when wet. Substratum is massive layer of shale rock. This soil is located at northwest part of Barangay Dacap Norte towards Centro Toma up to Colayo. Those fishpond located in Barangays Aporao, Luac, Tugui Norte, Tugui Grande and Masidem are also having this type of soil. It is suitable for upland rice, corn and tobacco. Scattered patches of trees and shrubs and grasses could also be found in areas with this soil type.

The soil class is Class BW and can be cultivated safely that requires only simple but good farm management practices.

Shale

This soil is shallow and moderately eroded. The top soil being shallow and its slope which accelerates soil erosion when left unprotected makes this land marginally suited for seasonal cultivation. Scattered portions are planted to upland rice, corn and vegetables during wet season. These areas are best suited to permanent crops or pastures. The soil is a Class D which is good for settlements.

Rockland

This land type is composed of coralline rocks. In some places there are very thin layer of soil materials among the rocks on which some trees have taken foothold. The present vegetation should be maintained. These rocklands should never be cleared so as not to facilitate the complete washing away of the remaining soil between the rocks. These instead may be planted to permanent fruit trees as mango, casuy, sineguelas and duhat and kept under vegetative cover at all times. It is classified as a Class X soil which is wet most of the time.

eastern part is situated a large expansion of marshy area traversed by the Bani River and a number of pond streams
Relief and Vegetation

The relief is generally level with small patches of undulating to gently rolling portions. The only depressed areas are near the Bani River, China Sea along Barangay Colayo, Centro Toma, Dacap Sur, and San Simon; and in Tambac Bay along Barangays Aporao and San Miguel, since these areas are prone to natural calamities like flooding , tidal wave and liquefaction.

On the other hand, vegetative cover consists of protection forest found in the western part of Barangays San Simon, Dacap Sur, Centro Toma and Colayo, secondary growth forest of ipil-ipil, mahogany and dike were found in Barangays Tiep, Dacap Norte, Colayo, Centro Toma, San Simon, Dacap Sur, Calabeng, Quinaoayanan, Tipor, Ballag, San Jose, Arwas, and Ranao. The mangrove forest is found in Barangay Aporao along the Tambac Bay, and grassland found in the western barangays of Dacap Sur, Centro Toma, Dacap Norte, San Simon, Ranao, Quinaoayanan, Calabeng, San Jose and Arwas. Rice and other seasonal crops were found in almost all barangays. Waterways, both freshwater and brackish water are found in the western and eastern parts of the town and built-up areas are found in each of the barangays of the municipality.


Natural Mineral Resources

Bani is endowed with natural resources like limestone, phosphate guano and shale which are located at Centro Toma, San Miguel, Garrita and Colayo. Mineral resources of the municipality include limestone, rock phosphate guano and shale. However, the municipality is basically an eco-tourism area. Predominantly it is more into promoting tourism rather than engaging in any mining activity. Mining of whatever kind is therefore prohibited in the area.


Surface Water Resource

There are numerous rivers that traverse the municipality. Bani River is the largest and widest. It starts at a spot called Don Cayo in Sorong near the old townside of Namagbagan. From there it winds its way eastward towards its mouth at Tambac Bay passing through Masidem, Tugui Norte, Luac and Aporao. Along its way, it is joined by tributaries from the southern hinterlands – The Quinaoayanan River, Ambabaay River, Banog River, Garrita River and the controversial Ilog Putot of Barangay San Miguel. From the north, it has only one tributary, the Tugui River which comes from the mountains at zigzag. And near the mouth of Bani River, the Alaminos River, going south, cuts the sitio of Abunciang from its mother barangay San Miguel. All these rivers are navigable except Ilog Putot, made by act of man. These provide water irrigation to farmers and also serve as natural drainage of the municipality. (See Map No. 9)

Man Made Risk and Natural Hazards

The municipality has no known man-made risk. All administrative facilities and other infrastructure like roads, bridges, dams, dikes were all strategically located and maintained. Even electrical post and transmitter lines are all maintained and fully planned by the NAPOCOR and PANELCO.

However, there are some portions of the town that experience slight to moderate flooding depending how strong the rain that falls during the rainy season. Barangays affected are portions of Barangays Ambabaay, Aporao, Banog Norte, Garrita, Luac, Masidem, San Miguel, Tugui Grande and Poblacion. These barangays were affected by this natural hazard due to their nearness to the river, fishponds and its physical characteristics which is low land level. Slight to moderate flooded area covers about 2,405.92 hectares.

Aside from flood problems, there are also portions which are erosion prone, which cover about 889.29 hectares. The affected barangays are portions of Tiep, Ranao, San Jose, Colayo, Dacap Sur, San Simon and Centro Toma. Erosion occurs in these areas due to deforestation and exposure of the soil to rain and excessive heat that destroys plants, trees and grasses that holds the soil.

Likewise, Barangays San Simon, Dacap Sur, Centro Toma and Colayo along the China Sea and Aporao and San Miguel by Tambac Bay area are slightly affected by liquefaction and by hazard from hydrologic adjustments and from soils, rocks and sediments movement. Likewise, there is no danger of a high intensity earthquake since the town is only traversed by a normal fault line affecting portions of upland area of Barangay Tiep, Luac and San Jose

DEMOGRAPHY


INTRODUCTION

The study of population is required in planning so as to determine the size of human resources in a locality and ascertain their various needs and consider their interests and traits for the economic growth of the community at the local level. Human resources and their needs could be specifically identified by studying the population size, growth, structure, distribution, density, composition and changes due to births, deaths, inmigration, out-migration, transfer of groups in the same population such as marriages, separation, divorce and other socio-economic characteristics and the causes and consequences of those factors. Likewise, the age of the population determines the potential labor force and identifies the areas with considerable unemployment rates. These data guide the planners in redirecting development towards the concerned area and create job opportunities for existing and projected population.

Needless to say, the population size, its growth, spatial and age distribution affect the demand for economic goods and services such as food, clothing and other manufactured products, and the need to generate employment opportunities. An increasing population connotes an increasing demand for housing with necessary amenities. As consumers, the size and composition growth of population determine the demand for water and power supply for households, drainage system and other community utilities such as transportation.

While land resources are definite in the area and sometimes limited, or even subject to liquefaction, population density and rural expansion generally increase. Thus, population growth is a major controlling factor in the maintenance or degradation of ecological balance and the massive conversion of protection and production lands like agricultural and forestlands to urban uses.

Historical Growth and Composition

The municipality of Bani can be characterized as having a continuous increase in population from 1903 to present.

The first recorded data on population of Bani was 4,440, as per census in 1903. During the succeeding censal year in 1918, it rose to 8,109 with an absolute change of 3,669 or 4.11 annual growth rate. This period recorded the highest absolute percent change. This number steadily increased to 14,565 in 1939 with an annual growth rate of 2.83 percent and an absolute change of 6,456. This period also recoded the highest absolute change. Nine years after, in 1948, the population rose to 18,402 with an increase of 3,837 or 2.63 percent annual growth rate. The population in 1960 furthermore increased by 5,356 or 2.5 percent annual growth rate.

During the period 1970 to 1975, the town’s population increased to 27,549 with 1.82 annual growth rate. A slight increase was observed between 1975 to 1980 with a total population of 29,039 having 1,490 from its level in 1975. From 1980 to 1990, an increase of 8,141 or 2.50 percent change was noted. The censal period done in 1995, registered a total population of 37,450 with an increase of 270 or 0.14 annual growth rate. The last censal period conducted in 2000 indicated an increase of 5,274 with an annual growth rate of 2.72 percent

 

Population Composition and Distribution

As of 2007 census of population, Bani has a total population of 45,652.

Barangay Population
Ambabaay 1,898
Aporao 670
Arwas 1,644
Ballag
873
Banog Norte 1,978
Banog Sur 1,573
Centro Toma 2,009
Colayo 1,734
Dacap Norte 942
Dacap Sur 2,924
Garrita 1,491
Luac 1,879
Macabit 1,150
Masidem 1,153
Poblacion 3,697
Quinaoayanan 2,886
Ranao 2,384
Ranom Iloco 1,676
San Jose 1,897
San Miguel 3,439
San Simon 1,159
San Vicente 1,217
Tiep 2,419
Tipor 853
Tugui Grande 1,341
Tugui Norte 790
Calabeng 876

Urban-Rural and Distribution

For the purpose of town planning and zoning, Barangay Poblacion shall be considered as urban barangay,. While the remaining 26 barangays shall be considered as rural barangays. Presently, the contiguous built-up portions of the said urban barangays are the center of urban activities in the municipality.

As per 2000 census, the urban barangay has 4,815 population comprising 11.24 percent of the total municipal population and an average household size of 5 persons.

Rural barangays have a total population of 38,009 comprising 88.76 percent of the total population and an average household size of 4.77 or about 5. The most populated rural barangays are Barangays San Miguel (3,464), Quinaoayanan (2,425), Banog Norte (1,787), Dacap Sur (1,940), and Centro Toma (1,712). They also have the highest number of households.

Population Density

Taken in its entirety, the municipality of Bani has a gross density of 2 persons per hectare which is still considered as low density. However, compared to other towns similarly situated, the locality’s population is ideal. Population is sufficient in number and there are rooms for economic expansion.

On the average, the urban areas has a population density of 9 persons per hectare. The rural area, on the other hand, has an average of 2 persons per hectare. The most populated rural barangay is Tugui Grande and Tugui Norte with a total population of 1,392 and 671 and 6 persons per hectare, respectively

Age-Sex, Population

As per 2000 NSO Census, of the 42,824 population of Bani, 21,709 or 50.69 percent belonged to male population while 21,115 or 49.31 percent belonged to female population. There were more males than females with ratio of 99:100 or there were 99 females for every 100 males.

Languages or Dialects Spoken

Mother Tongue is the first dialect spoken by a person in his earliest childhood. It is the tongue used at the birth of a child. While it is conceded that the formal education of the child is in school, his personality and upbringing are at home for which parents are responsible. In the process, communication between the parents and children is inevitable. In this regard, mother tongue plays an important role


Religious Affiliation

The most dominant religion in Bani is Roman Catholic with 28,686 or 66.98 percent followers. Another dominant religion is the municipality is Aglipay with 7,859 or 18.35 percent, Iglesia Ni Cristo with 2,164 or 5.05 percent followers. Other religions include: Islam, Philippine Episcopal Church, Iglesia Evangelista Methodista en Las Filipinas, United Methodist Church, Salvation army Philippines, Convention of the Philippine Baptist Church, Other Protestant, Buddhist, Church of Christ of the Latter Day Saints, Jehova’s Witnesses, Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association, Seventh Day Adventist, Evangelicals, Bible Baptist, Southern Baptist, Association of Baptist Churches in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.

Migration and Its Measures

Migration is the movement of population across a specific boundary for the purpose of residing therein.

Marital Status

Of the total household population of age bracket 10 years old and over, as per 2000 data, majority or 16,558 are legally married comprising 8,219 are males and 8,339 are females; 13,173 are single of which 7,198 are males and 5,975 are females, 1,651 are widowed of which 408 are males and 1,243 are females, 212 are divorced or separated of which 92 are males and 120 are females, 228 have not stated their status of which 122 are males and 106 are females.

Literacy Rate

Of the 32,510 household population 10 years old and over, 30,668 or 9,433 percent are literate and 1,842 or 5.67 are illiterate. Of the literate, 15,580 are male and 15,088 are female. Of the illiterate, 798 are male and 1044 are female. Based on the table below, there are more literate in the young generation than those in old generation.

Highest Educational Attainment

As per 2000 data, of the 37,748 inhabitants 5 years old and over, 94.81 percent have completed or entered school under specific educational level while 1,960 or 5.19 percent failed to finish or enter school.

Majority or 12.835 or 34.00 percent of the household population 5 years old and over were able to reach high school of which 5,040 or 13.35 are undergraduate and 7,795 or 20.65 percent are graduate, 15,490 or 41.04 percent reached elementary grade of which 6,995 or 18.53 percent were 1st to 4th grade and 8,495 or 22.50 percent were 5th to 7th grade, 2,784 or 7.38 percent are college graduate, 1,692 or 4.48 percent are post secondary of which 814 or 2.16 percent are undergraduate and 878 or 2.32 percent are graduate, 1011 or 2.68 percent are academic degree holder, 405 or 1.07 percent are post baccalaureate and 1,023 or 2.71 percent failed to state their respective educational attainment.

Broad Age Group

Productive or working are population belonging to the age bracket 15 to 64 years old represent the locality’s potential labor force. Dependent population, on the other hand, is made up of young persons belonging to ages 0 to 14 and older ones who are 65 years old and over.

On the other hand, the dependent age group, the members of which are generally but not necessarily dependent on the productive group for their subsistence, totaled 16,800 or 39.46 percent of the total population as of 2000. The young population consisting of 14,364 or 33.54 percent outnumbered the older ones of 64 years old and over numbering 2,536 or 5.92 percent.

As per 2000, 25,924 or 60.54 percent of the population belonged to the productive or working age group. Potential labor force contributed 60.54 percent of the total population. The ratio of young dependent to working age group is 55:100 and the old dependent to working age group is 10:100.

School Going-Age Population

As per 1995 data, a total of 13,601 or 36.32 percent of the total municipal population belong to school-going ages 7 to 20 years old, as per DECS classification. Of the number 6,607 or 48.58 percent are elementary comprising 4,846 or 35.63 percent primary and 1,761 or 12.95 percent intermediate, 3,333 or 24.51 percent secondary ( 13 to 16 years old) and 3,661 or 26.92 percent tertiary (17 to 20 years old).

Labor Force or Working Age Group

As of 1990. the municipality has a total labor force of 23,282 of which 10,246 or 44.01 percent are employed consisting of 7,779 or 33.41 percent male and 2,467 or 10.6 percent female; 1,792 or 7.70 percent are unemployed of which 869 or 3.73 percent are male and 923 or 3.96 percent are female. Large number of the population comprising 11,244 or 48.29 percent are not in the labor force.

Projection

Population projection is basic and very important in Land Use Planning. This is the means to enable the planner to forecast the size and growth of the population in a study area and direct the future utilization of available resources to meet the needs required by such size of population.

In planning, it was always wise and safe to project the needed parameters. Projections were made for the next ten (10) years 2003-2012 particularly for the total population, population by barangay, population by age group, school-going age, population density, and households population. Mathematical methods of projections, specifically Geometric and Linear Growth Approaches were used. Ratios and preparations were also resorted in some computations.

Population size and compositions were projected in order to provide planners an idea for the goods and services to be produced. The projections were sourced out from the results of the total population projections.

The population of Bani is expected to reach 56,006 by year 2012 representing an increase of 13,182 from its level of 2000. This means that the municipality has to prepare itself to accommodate a larger number of population in the future.

Urban population is expected to reach 6,297 by year 2012 representing an increase of 1,482 from its level of 2000. The rate of population growth is faster in the urban area than in the rural area, hence it is expected that urban lands shall be expected towards the fringes of Poblacion.

Taking a closer look at the projections by age-group, 13.24 percent of the highest increase shall be contributed by ages 5 to 9 at the peak of production group. Population growth rate becomes much faster if population management will not be taken seriously during the planning period.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Municipality of Bani, Pangasinan, PHILIPPINES 2407
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